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Analyzes of materials

 

 The analysis of materials mainly consists in determining the quality of this one by various techniques such as: metallography, analysis EDX, spectrometry with x-rays…

It can be implemented for various reasons:

 

Quality control according to protocol

Report of a defect on a product or a batch of matter outlines

Will of an improvement of the mechanical or physics properties.

 

Metallographic analysis

 

Metallography is a technique which consists in determining the structure of a metal by observing it using an optical microscope. One can thus determine, according to the cases:

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size and the shape of the grains which constitute the microstructure;

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the distribution of the phases;

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direction of the lines of slip (intersection of the slip surfaces with surface)

 

In theory the sample must be coated in a resin and then polished until with a surface quality allowing the observation under the microscope (of 100 with 2000x).

An attack of the surface thus prepared with a corrosive solution makes it possible to highlight the parts to be observed.

The microstructure is generally revealed and observed in this way. (see photo)

The microstructure is the “genetic card” of material. It will give information on its homogeneity, its mechanical state, its purity, like on its mode of setting forms.

 

This study has to recommend for all the problems encountered on materials like for a regular quality control.

 

 

EDX analyzes

 

Analysis EDX (analyzes dispersive in energy) by  scanning electron microscope (SEM) is method interesting for a very great quantity of materials.

 

Indeed, this nondestructive method of analysis makes it possible to determine the chemical composition of material.

 

Moreover, this method of analysis being coupled with an electron microscope with sweeping makes it possible to see and direct very precisely the analysis. It is possible in particular to carry out a specific analysis on an incrustation which measures less than one micron. Many other applications are useful in the current analysis like in the search for defects.

 

Analysis EDX also makes it possible to carry out a cartography (see photo). The cartography is a representation of % of an element on a certain geographical beach.

Analyzes by infra-red spectrometry

 

The analysis by infra-red spectrometry is used to determine the percentage of carbon and sulphur in various materials, whether it is metal, polymeric or organic.

 

This analysis is destructive. At least matter 1g is necessary. This one will be burned at high temperature and of the sensors will analyze the smoked resulting ones. The percentage of C and S will be thus given.

 

Chemical composition analyzes

 

The analysis of fine chemical composition is generally carried out by dissolution and analyzes with the mass spectrometer (ICP)

 

This one makes it possible to determine with exactitude the percentage of each element contained in material.

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